Aerobic is an adjective that means “requiring air”, where “air” usually means oxygen. Aerobic exercise is physical exercise that intends to improve the oxygen system. Aerobic means “with oxygen”, and refers to the use of oxygen in the body’s metabolic or energy-generating process. Many types of exercise are Aerobic, and by definition are performed at moderate levels of intensity for extended periods of time.
Aerobic Gymnastics, also known as sport aerobics and competitive aerobics, is a type of competitive aerobics involving complicated choreography, rhythmic and acrobatic gymnastics with elements of aerobics. Performance is divided into categories by age, sex and groups (individual, mixed pairs and trios) and are judged on the following elements: dynamic and static strength, jumps and leaps, kicks, balance and flexibility. Ten exercises are mandatory: four consecutive high leg kicks, patterns. A maximum of ten elements from following families are allowed: push-ups, supports and balances, kicks and splits, jumps and leaps. Elements of tumbling such as handsprings, handstands, back flips, and aerial somersaults are prohibited. Scoring is by judging of artistic quality, creativity, execution, and difficulty of routines. Sport aerobics has state, national, and international competitions, but is not an Olympic sport.
The Aerobic System. The first stage is Glycolsis, which works anaerobicly and occurs in the Sarcoplasm (the cytoplasm of a muscle). This process happens happens in 10 stages where various, slight but important changes are made. In this process 4 ATP molecules are produced but 2 are used in the breakdown of glucose leaving a net gain of 2. Glucose is split to from 2 3-carbon sugars, which is then oxidised to form Pyruvate. At this point aerobic respiration meets anerobic respiration. The pyruvic acid is oxidised forming Acetyl Co A, a 2 carbon compound that can enter the kreb cycle. In this cycle Acetyl Co A combines with Oxaloacetic acid to form citric acid, a 6 carbon compound. This releases carbon dioxide which can be safely breathed out, it resynthesises a further 2 ATP and releases hydrogen which is taken by NAD to the electron transfer chain in the Mitochchondria. The electron transfer chain occurs in the Cristae of the Mitochondria (where the enzymes and proteins for this chain are attached to the inner wall). NAD and FAD combine with the hydrogen ions made during glycolsis to make NADH and FADH. They then donate electrons to the first carrier molecule of the electron transfer chain. The electrons pass through the chain by a series of redox (reduction and oxidation) reactions. The energy from the electrons and the hydrogen powers ATPsynthase which uses ADP and phosphate to resynthesise ATP. At the end of this chain electrons combine with protons and Oxygen to form water.
Aerobics is a form of physical exercise that combines rhythmic aerobic exercise with stretching and strength training routines with the goal of improving all elements of fitness (flexibility, muscular strength, and cardio-vascular fitness). It is usually performed to music and may be practiced in a group setting led by an instructor (fitness professional), although it can be done solo and without musical accompaniment. With the goal of preventing illness and promoting physical fitness, practitioners perform various routines comprising a number of different dance-like exercises. Formal aerobics classes are divided into different levels of intensity and complexity. Aerobics classes may allow participants to select their level of participation according to their fitness level. Many gyms offer a variety of aerobic classes. Each class is designed for a certain level of experience and taught by a certified instructor with a specialty area related to their particular class.
Freestyle aerobics is an aerobics style in which a group instructor choreographs several short dance combinations and teaches them to the class. This is usually achieved by teaching the class 1-2 movements at a time and repeating the movements until the class is able to join the whole choreography together. Aerobic music is used throughout the class. This is sometimes followed by a strength section which uses body weight exercises to strengthen muscles and a stretch routine to cool down and improve flexibility. Classes are usually 30–60 minutes in length and may include the use of equipment such as a barbell, aerobic step, or small weights.
Step Aerobics is distinguished from other forms of aerobic exercise by its use of an elevated platform (the step). The height can be tailored to individual needs by inserting risers under the step. Step Aerobics classes are offered at many gyms and fitness centers which have a group exercise program. Step Aerobics was innovated by Gin Miller around 1989. Often moves are referred to as Reebok step moves in reference to one of the first makers of the plastic step commonly used in gyms.
Water Aerobics or “waterobics” is the performance of aerobic exercise in shallow water such as a swimming pool. In some areas it is known as AquaFit or “aqua aerobics”, and is a type of resistance training. Water aerobic workouts usually combine a variety of techniques from land aerobics, including walking or running backward and forward, jumping jacks, mimicking cross-country skiing, along with various arm movements. The workout also may incorporate equipment such as flotation belts, specialized water aerobics shoes, flotation devices, and ankle and wrist weights. The exercise can be done with music in water tempo, or without.